Topic of discussionThe Yukl (2013) text describes classic th…


Leadership and management are two distinct yet intertwined concepts that play crucial roles in organizational success. Over the years, various theories have been developed to explain and understand these concepts. In his book, “Leadership in Organizations,” Gary Yukl (2013) provides an in-depth analysis of classic theories of leadership and management. This essay aims to discuss the key elements of these theories as described by Yukl.

Trait Theories:

Trait theories of leadership focus on identifying the personal qualities and characteristics that are often associated with effective leaders. According to Yukl, early trait theories assumed that leaders possess specific innate traits that differentiate them from non-leaders. However, research in this area has yielded inconsistent results, indicating that traits alone cannot fully explain effective leadership. Nonetheless, some common traits often associated with leadership include self-confidence, intelligence, ambition, determination, and integrity.

Behavioral Theories:

Behavioral theories of leadership shift the focus from inherent qualities to the actions and behaviors of leaders. Yukl highlights two prominent behavioral theories: the Ohio State studies and the University of Michigan studies. The Ohio State studies identified two dimensions of leadership behavior, namely consideration and initiating structure. Consideration refers to a leader’s ability to create a supportive and friendly work environment, while initiating structure refers to the extent to which a leader defines and organizes their subordinates’ roles.

The University of Michigan studies, on the other hand, proposed two dimensions: employee-centered and job-centered leadership. Employee-centered leaders prioritize building strong relationships with their subordinates and ensuring their satisfaction, while job-centered leaders prioritize the completion of tasks and meeting organizational goals. These studies revealed that different leadership behaviors can be effective in different situations, leading to the development of contingency theories.

Contingency Theories:

Contingency theories of leadership take into account the context or situation in which leadership occurs. Yukl highlights two influential contingency theories: Fiedler’s contingency model and Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership theory. Fiedler’s model proposes that the effectiveness of a leader is determined by their leadership style and situational favorableness. Leadership style refers to the leader’s preferred behavior, whether task-oriented or relationship-oriented. Situational favorableness is determined by three factors: leader-member relations, task structure, and position power.

Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership theory, on the other hand, suggests that effective leadership depends on the readiness level of followers. Readiness refers to the subordinates’ willingness and ability to complete a task. This theory proposes four leadership styles: telling, selling, participating, and delegating. The appropriate style is determined by the followers’ readiness level, with more directive styles used for less experienced followers and more participative styles used for experienced, competent followers.

Transformational and Transactional Leadership:

Transformational leadership focuses on leaders who inspire and motivate their followers to exceed their own self-interests for the greater good of the organization. This approach emphasizes the importance of charisma, inspiration, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. Transactional leadership, on the other hand, emphasizes the exchange relationship between the leader and the follower. Transactional leaders set clear expectations, reward good performance, and correct deviations from expectations.

Yukl also discusses the concept of authentic leadership, which emphasizes the importance of self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing of information, and relational transparency. Authentic leaders are genuine, ethical, and trustworthy, creating positive environments that promote organizational effectiveness.


In his book, Yukl provides a comprehensive overview of classic theories of leadership and management. The discussed theories, including trait theories, behavioral theories, contingency theories, transformational and transactional leadership, and authentic leadership, offer valuable insights into understanding and practicing effective leadership. However, it is important to note that leadership effectiveness is influenced by various factors, including the organizational context, followers’ characteristics, and dynamic external environment. Thus, a combination of theories and situational adaptability is crucial for leaders in effectively navigating the complexities of modern organizations.