Read the Case Study and answer the “Discussion Points” in a …

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Title: Discussion on the Impact of Climate Change on Polar Bears

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are the largest species of bears and inhabit the Arctic region. They are well adapted to the cold and their survival is closely tied to sea ice, which they rely on for hunting seals and breeding. Climate change, however, poses a significant threat to their habitat and food sources, putting their population at risk. This discussion will explore the impact of climate change on polar bears, focusing on three key points: reduction of sea ice, decline in prey availability, and increased competition.

Reduction of Sea Ice
Polar bears depend on sea ice for their primary hunting platform and access to seal prey. Changing climatic conditions, particularly rising temperatures, have led to the overall decrease in sea ice extent and duration. The shrinking of sea ice results in longer swimming distances for polar bears between ice floes, leading to increased energy expenditure and reduced hunting success. Hudson Bay, for instance, has seen a significant reduction in sea ice, forcing polar bears to spend more time on land and pausing their feeding opportunities.

A study by Stirling and Derocher (2012) revealed a correlation between declining sea ice and declining polar bear populations in western Hudson Bay. The reduction in sea ice has resulted in delayed ice formation in the fall, limiting the hunting period for polar bears. Consequently, their body condition and reproductive success have declined. This study highlights the direct impact of climate change on the long-term survival of polar bears.

Decline in Prey Availability
Seals, particularly ringed seals (Pusa hispida), are the primary prey of polar bears. These seals rely on sea ice for giving birth to their pups and molting. With the reduction in sea ice, the availability of suitable ice platforms for pupping and molting decreases. Consequently, there is a decline in seal populations, leading to a scarcity of prey for polar bears.

Research by Regehr et al. (2007) indicates that declines in the availability of ringed seals have a direct negative impact on the body condition and survival rates of polar bears. The study found that bear populations around the Beaufort Sea exhibited lower body condition and declining survival rates as seal populations decreased. Continued reductions in sea ice due to climate change will further exacerbate this prey shortage.

Increased Competition
As polar bears face diminished sea ice and declining prey availability, they are forced to search for alternative food sources. This competition for resources has led to an increased overlap between polar bears and other predators, such as grizzly bears and wolves. The resulting competition for limited food resources may place additional stress on already vulnerable polar bear populations.

A recent study by Atwood et al. (2016) documented the interactions between polar bears and grizzly bears in the Canadian Arctic. The study found that as sea ice declines, grizzly bears are moving further north, occupying habitats previously exclusive to polar bears. This overlap increases the potential for resource competition and may lead to further displacement and disruption of polar bear populations.

The impact of climate change on polar bears includes the reduction of sea ice, decline in prey availability, and increased competition. These factors collectively pose a significant risk to the long-term survival of polar bears in their natural habitats. Urgent measures are required to mitigate the effects of climate change and protect these iconic Arctic mammals.