psy 228 corrections unit 1 (1,10,17,18,20,22,23,AND 24) ,An…

Unit 1

Question 1: What is the primary purpose of corrections?

The primary purpose of corrections is to carry out sentences imposed by the criminal justice system on individuals who have been found guilty of committing a crime. Corrections aim to achieve several objectives, including punishment, rehabilitation, deterrence, incapacitation, and reintegration.

Question 10: What is the difference between jails and prisons?

Jails and prisons are both correctional facilities, but they serve different purposes. Jails are typically operated by local jurisdictions, such as counties and cities, and they are used to hold individuals who are awaiting trial, serving short sentences (usually less than a year), or awaiting transfer to a prison facility. Prisons, on the other hand, are long-term correctional facilities operated by state or federal governments for individuals convicted of more serious crimes and serving longer sentences.

Question 17: What is the purpose of probation?

Probation is an alternative to incarceration that allows offenders to serve their sentences in the community under supervision. The primary purpose of probation is to provide an opportunity for offenders to rehabilitate themselves, maintain employment, and reintegrate into society, while also ensuring public safety. Probation typically involves conditions that the offender must abide by, such as regular meetings with a probation officer, drug testing, and curfew restrictions.

Question 18: What is parole?

Parole is the supervised release of an offender from prison before the completion of their sentence. The purpose of parole is to allow individuals to reintegrate into society under supervision after demonstrating rehabilitation and meeting certain criteria. Parole supervision includes regular meetings with a parole officer, adherence to specific conditions, and the possibility of returning to prison if those conditions are violated.

Question 20: What are the principles of effective correctional intervention?

The principles of effective correctional intervention include risk, need, and responsivity. Risk assessment involves identifying the level of risk an offender poses to reoffend and targeting interventions accordingly. Need assessment identifies areas of criminogenic needs, such as substance abuse, education, or employment, that require intervention. Responsivity refers to matching the style and mode of intervention to the individual’s learning style, motivation, and abilities.

Question 22: What is the concept of restorative justice?

Restorative justice is an approach that focuses on repairing the harm caused by a crime rather than solely punishing the offender. It involves bringing together the victim, the offender, and the community to address the needs of all parties involved and promote healing, accountability, and the prevention of future offenses. Restorative justice may involve various processes, including victim-offender mediation, community conferences, and restitution to victims.

Question 23: What is the difference between retribution and rehabilitation?

Retribution is a punishment-oriented approach that seeks to inflict harm or suffering on offenders as a response to their crimes. It is based on the idea of justice being served through punishment. Rehabilitation, on the other hand, focuses on addressing the underlying causes of criminal behavior and helping offenders reintegrate into society as law-abiding citizens. It aims to prevent future offenses by providing education, treatment, and support to individuals in order to change their behavior and attitudes.

Question 24: What is recidivism and why is it important in corrections?

Recidivism refers to the relapse or reoffending of individuals who have been previously convicted of a criminal offense. It measures the rate at which offenders return to criminal behavior after being released from prison or completing their sentence. Recidivism rates are important in corrections as they provide insights into the effectiveness of interventions and approaches used in the criminal justice system. Low recidivism rates indicate successful rehabilitation efforts, while high rates may indicate a need for changes in policies or programs.

Unit 4

Question 1: What factors contribute to prison overcrowding?

Prison overcrowding is a complex issue influenced by various factors. Some of the contributing factors include tougher sentencing laws, including mandatory minimums and three-strikes laws, which result in longer prison terms; an increase in drug-related offenses and mandatory drug sentences; a higher rate of recidivism; limited funding for alternative sentencing programs; and a lack of investment in community-based treatment and rehabilitation programs.

Question 3: What are some of the challenges faced by correctional officers?

Correctional officers face numerous challenges in their roles. Some of these challenges include maintaining order and discipline in a potentially volatile environment, dealing with violent or aggressive inmates, preventing escapes, managing the diverse needs of the inmate population, addressing mental health issues among inmates, and balancing the demands of the job with personal health and safety.

Question 7: What is the purpose of inmate classification?

Inmate classification is the process of assessing and categorizing inmates based on various factors, such as the severity of their crime, behavioral history, and individual needs. The purpose of inmate classification is to ensure the safety and security of the facility by placing inmates in appropriate housing units and assigning them to programs and services that address their specific risks and needs. Classification also helps in determining eligibility for parole or other forms of early release.

Question 12: What are some strategies for managing prison gangs?

Managing prison gangs requires a multi-faceted approach. Some strategies include intelligence gathering and sharing to identify gang members and their activities, implementing strict security measures to prevent gang recruitment and violence, offering education and vocational programs to reduce gang affiliation, providing gang-related rehabilitation and counseling services, and developing partnerships with external agencies to monitor and disrupt gang activities both inside and outside of prison.

Question 13: What are some of the ethical issues faced by correctional professionals?

Correctional professionals are confronted with several ethical issues in their daily work. Some of these issues include maintaining confidentiality and professional boundaries, treating inmates humanely and without discrimination, avoiding the abuse of power and authority, upholding personal and professional integrity, and balancing the goals of punishment and rehabilitation in the best interest of public safety.

Question 14: What is the role of reentry programs in reducing recidivism?

Reentry programs are designed to help offenders successfully reintegrate into society after their release from prison. They provide support and resources to address the challenges faced by ex-offenders, such as finding employment, securing housing, accessing healthcare services, and reconnecting with their families. These programs aim to reduce recidivism by providing offenders with the necessary skills and support systems to lead law-abiding, productive lives, ultimately contributing to public safety.

Question 20: What are some of the current trends in corrections?

Several current trends are shaping the field of corrections. Some of these trends include an increased focus on evidence-based practices and program evaluation to determine the most effective interventions, a push for alternatives to incarceration, such as diversion programs and specialty courts, a greater emphasis on mental health treatment within correctional settings, the use of technology to enhance safety and efficiency, and efforts to address racial and ethnic disparities within the criminal justice system.