NUR502 Week 8 Benchmark Assignment Applying Theory to a Prac…

Applying Theory to a Practice Problem Part 3


In healthcare, utilizing theoretical frameworks and evidence-based practice is crucial for providing effective and efficient patient care. By incorporating nursing theories into clinical practice, nurses can enhance their decision-making skills and improve patient outcomes. This benchmark assignment aims to apply the Change Theory and the Evidence-Based Practice Model to a practice problem in order to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of implementing a specific intervention.

Practice Problem

The practice problem discussed in this assignment involves the high rate of medication errors in a hospital setting. Medication errors are a significant concern in healthcare, as they can lead to adverse patient outcomes, increased healthcare costs, and legal ramifications. The goal is to reduce medication errors by implementing a barcode medication administration (BCMA) system.

Change Theory

The Change Theory, developed by Kurt Lewin, provides a framework for understanding and managing the process of organizational change. This theory consists of three stages: unfreezing, moving, and refreezing. In the context of implementing the BCMA system, each stage of the Change Theory will be applied.

The unfreezing stage involves creating awareness and motivating individuals to change. In this case, nurses and other healthcare professionals would be educated about the benefits of the BCMA system and the risks associated with medication errors. By highlighting the potential impact on patient safety and outcomes, it is expected that individuals will be more receptive to the change.

The moving stage focuses on implementing the change. In this case, the BCMA system would need to be installed and integrated into the existing workflow of the healthcare facility. This stage requires careful planning and coordination to ensure a smooth transition. Training programs and resources should be provided to healthcare staff to familiarize them with the system, its functionalities, and proper utilization.

The final stage, refreezing, involves reinforcing and stabilizing the change within the organization. This stage is essential to ensure the long-term sustainability of the BCMA system. Regular monitoring and evaluation should be conducted to identify any barriers or challenges and make necessary adjustments. Additionally, providing continuous education and support to healthcare staff is crucial to maintain their competence and confidence in using the system.

Evidence-Based Practice Model

The Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Model serves as a guide for integrating research evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences into decision-making. The EBP model consists of five steps: asking a clinical question, searching for evidence, appraising the evidence, applying the evidence, and evaluating the outcome.

The first step, asking a clinical question, involves identifying the problem and formulating a specific question that can be answered through research. In this case, the question would focus on the effectiveness of BCMA systems in reducing medication errors.

The second step, searching for evidence, requires conducting a comprehensive literature review to identify relevant studies and evidence to answer the clinical question. This step helps in determining the current state of knowledge and identifying any gaps in the literature.

The third step, appraising the evidence, involves critically analyzing the identified studies for their methodological rigor, validity, and relevance to the practice problem. This step helps in determining the strength and quality of the evidence.

The fourth step, applying the evidence, involves integrating the synthesized evidence into clinical practice. In this case, the findings from the literature review would support the implementation of the BCMA system as an intervention to reduce medication errors.

The final step, evaluating the outcome, involves assessing the effectiveness of the intervention by monitoring patient outcomes, medication error rates, and staff satisfaction. This step helps in determining the impact of the intervention and provides feedback for continuous improvement.


In conclusion, applying the Change Theory and the Evidence-Based Practice Model to the practice problem of medication errors can facilitate the implementation of the BCMA system in healthcare settings. The Change Theory provides a systematic approach to manage the process of change, while the EBP Model helps in integrating research evidence into decision-making. By utilizing these frameworks, healthcare organizations can enhance patient safety and improve the quality of care.