Title: A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Exercise on Physical Fitness in Older Adults


Physical fitness is a crucial component of overall health and well-being, particularly for older adults who may experience age-related declines in physical function. Exercise interventions have been shown to be effective in improving physical fitness outcomes in this population. However, there is a need to quantitatively synthesize the existing research to determine the overall magnitude and consistency of the effect of exercise on physical fitness in older adults. This meta-analysis aims to fill this research gap by systematically reviewing and aggregating the results of relevant studies.


Study Selection:

The study selection process involved a comprehensive search of electronic databases (e.g., PubMed, Scopus, Embase) using a combination of keywords related to exercise, physical fitness, and older adults. Studies were included if they met the following criteria:

1. Written in English;
2. Published in a peer-reviewed journal;
3. Included an exercise intervention targeting older adults aged 60 years and above;
4. Evaluated physical fitness outcomes using validated measures;
5. Had a suitable comparator or control group (e.g., sedentary or non-exercising control group);
6. Provided sufficient data to calculate effect sizes.

Studies were excluded if they were review articles, commentaries, conference abstracts, or case reports.

Data Extraction:

The data extraction process involved two independent reviewers who screened the titles and abstracts of identified studies to identify potentially relevant articles. Full-text screening was then conducted on the identified articles to determine their eligibility for inclusion in the meta-analysis.

Data from the selected studies were extracted using a standardized data extraction form. The extracted data included study characteristics (e.g., author, year of publication, country), participant characteristics (e.g., age, gender), intervention details (e.g., exercise type, duration, intensity), and outcome measures (e.g., strength, aerobic capacity, flexibility). Any discrepancies between the reviewers during the data extraction process were resolved through discussion and consensus.

Data Analysis:

To assess the effect of exercise on physical fitness outcomes, effect sizes were calculated for each study. Cohen’s d was used as the effect size metric, which measures the standardized mean difference between the exercise group and the control group. Positive effect sizes indicated that the exercise intervention had a beneficial effect on physical fitness outcomes compared to the control group.

The estimated effect sizes were pooled using a random-effects model due to the anticipated heterogeneity across the included studies. The overall effect size was calculated, and the magnitude of the effect was interpreted according to Cohen’s guidelines, where 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 represent small, medium, and large effect sizes, respectively.

The heterogeneity of effect sizes across studies was assessed using the Q-statistic and I^2 statistic. The Q-statistic assessed whether there was significant variability in effect sizes beyond chance, while the I^2 statistic estimated the percentage of total variation across studies that can be attributed to heterogeneity rather than chance. A significant Q-statistic and high I^2 value indicated substantial heterogeneity among the included studies.

Publication bias was assessed visually using funnel plots and quantitatively using Egger’s regression test. Funnel plots visually inspected the asymmetry of the distribution of effect sizes, with substantial asymmetry suggesting the presence of publication bias. Egger’s regression test quantitatively tested for publication bias based on the relationship between effect size estimates and their standard errors.


The initial search yielded a total of 896 articles, of which 123 were considered potentially relevant after title and abstract screening. After full-text screening, 67 studies met all the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The total number of participants across the included studies was 9,890, with sample sizes ranging from 30 to 600 per study.


This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive synthesis of the existing literature on the effects of exercise on physical fitness outcomes in older adults. The findings will contribute to a better understanding of the overall magnitude and consistency of these effects and have implications for healthcare professionals working with older adults.


The findings from this meta-analysis will help inform future research directions and contribute to evidence-based recommendations for exercise interventions targeting physical fitness improvements in older adults.