In about 350 words please answer the following questions inc…

The concept of cognitive dissonance, proposed by Leon Festinger in 1957, refers to the psychological discomfort that arises when individuals hold contradictory beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors. According to Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory, when individuals experience this state of dissonance, they are motivated to reduce it by changing their beliefs or behaviors in order to achieve consistency.

Cognitive dissonance can occur in various situations, such as when someone holds conflicting beliefs about a particular issue, engages in behaviors that contradict their values or attitudes, or receives information that challenges their existing beliefs. For example, imagine a person who believes strongly in the importance of environmental conservation but regularly uses a gas-guzzling SUV. This individual may experience cognitive dissonance because their behavior contradicts their beliefs, leading to a desire to reduce the dissonance by either changing their behavior (e.g., using a more eco-friendly vehicle) or altering their beliefs (e.g., downplaying the importance of environmental conservation).

According to cognitive dissonance theory, reducing cognitive dissonance is a motivating factor that drives individuals to seek consistency and achieve psychological equilibrium. Festinger proposed that individuals can resolve cognitive dissonance through several cognitive processes, including changing their beliefs to align with their behavior, changing their behavior to align with their beliefs, or rationalizing the discrepancy between their beliefs and behavior.

One way to reduce cognitive dissonance is through the process of selective exposure. This refers to the tendency of individuals to seek out information or experiences that are consistent with their existing beliefs or attitudes while actively avoiding contradictory information or experiences. For example, a person who holds strong political beliefs might choose to watch news channels or read articles that align with their views while ignoring or dismissing contradictory information.

Another way to reduce cognitive dissonance is through the process of cognitive reappraisal. This involves reevaluating or reinterpretating information or experiences to fit one’s existing beliefs or attitudes. For instance, a person who receives feedback indicating that they performed poorly on a task might downplay the importance of the task or the validity of the feedback in order to reduce the dissonance between their self-perception and the negative feedback.

Furthermore, cognitive dissonance can also be reduced by adjusting one’s attitudes or beliefs to be consistent with a group’s norms or values. This process, known as social conformity, occurs when individuals change their opinions or behaviors to fit in with the majority or avoid social disapproval. Research studies, such as Asch’s conformity experiments, have demonstrated the powerful influence of group pressure on individuals’ beliefs and behaviors.

In conclusion, cognitive dissonance represents the psychological discomfort that individuals experience when they hold conflicting beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors. This state of dissonance motivates individuals to seek consistency and reduce the discrepancy through various cognitive processes, such as selective exposure, cognitive reappraisal, and social conformity. Understanding the concept of cognitive dissonance is essential for comprehending human decision-making, attitude formation, and behavioral change. By recognizing the presence of cognitive dissonance, individuals and society can work towards resolving inconsistencies and promoting a more coherent and harmonious existence.


Festinger, L. (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Stanford University Press.

Asch, S. E. (1956). Studies of independence and conformity: I. A minority of one against a unanimous majority. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 70(9), 1-70.