*** cite sources and provide references for those cit…

In academic writing, properly citing sources and providing references is essential to maintain academic integrity and give credit to the original authors. APA format (American Psychological Association) is one commonly used citation style, particularly in the social sciences.

When citing sources in APA format, there are two main components: in-text citations and the reference list. In-text citations refer to the brief information included within the main body of the text, while the reference list provides more detailed information about the sources at the end of the paper.

In an in-text citation, the author’s last name and the year of publication are typically provided. For example:

According to Smith (2018), climate change is a pressing global issue.

If the author’s name is not mentioned in the sentence, it should be included within the parentheses along with the year:

Climate change is a pressing global issue (Smith, 2018).

For direct quotations, it is also necessary to include the page number:

“Climate change is a pressing global issue” (Smith, 2018, p. 15).

For sources with multiple authors, the last names of up to three authors are included in the in-text citation. For sources with four or more authors, only the first author’s last name is included, followed by “et al.”

In the reference list, full information about each source is provided in alphabetical order according to the author’s last name. The basic format for a book reference is as follows:

AuthorLastName, AuthorInitials. (Year). Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher.

For example:

Smith, J. (2018). Climate Change: A Global Perspective. New York, NY: Random House.

For journal articles, the reference format includes the author’s last name, initials, year, article title, journal title, volume number, issue number (in parentheses), and page range. The basic format is as follows:

AuthorLastName, AuthorInitials. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), Page Range.

For example:

Johnson, L., & Lee, S. (2019). The Impact of Climate Change on Biodiversity. Environmental Studies, 33(4), 45-67).

For web sources, the reference format includes the author’s last name, initials, year, webpage title, site title, URL, and the date of access (in square brackets). The basic format is as follows:

AuthorLastName, AuthorInitials. (Year). Webpage title. Site Title. Retrieved from URL [Accessed Date].

For example:

Smith, J. (2019). The Effects of Climate Change on Polar Bears. National Geographic. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/climate-science-effects-polar-bears [Accessed December 10, 2021].

It is also important to note that when citing sources within a paper, the information provided should be accurate and specific. When using direct quotations, it is crucial to use quotation marks and provide the page number. Additionally, it is recommended to use credible sources, such as peer-reviewed journals or books from reputable publishers.

In conclusion, properly citing sources and providing references in APA format is crucial for academic writing. In-text citations and the reference list are used to acknowledge the original authors of the information used in a paper. By following the guidelines and providing accurate and specific information, researchers can maintain academic integrity and give credit where it is due.