BSHS 452 Week 3 Program Design AND Evaluation Narrative + Ti…

Program Design and Evaluation: A Narrative Time Methods Exercise


The process of program design and evaluation plays a crucial role in the development and improvement of social service programs. This exercise focuses on understanding the narrative time methods used in program design and evaluation and how they contribute to the overall effectiveness of these programs. By exploring different approaches and techniques, social service professionals can gain insights into program design and evaluation that will better inform decision-making and enhance outcomes.

Narrative Time Methods

Narrative time methods encompass various approaches that involve the collection and analysis of stories, narratives, and personal accounts over a period of time. These methods allow for a deeper understanding of individual experiences, context, and the changes that occur over time within a program or intervention. By examining narratives, researchers and practitioners can gain insight into what works, what doesn’t, and the impact of specific interventions on individuals and communities.

One common narrative time method is the longitudinal study. This method involves collecting data from individuals or groups over an extended period of time, often several years. Longitudinal studies can provide valuable insights into the long-term effects of a program or intervention, as well as the factors that contribute to success or failure. By tracking individuals or groups over time, researchers can observe changes in outcomes, identify trends, and assess the overall impact of the program.

Another narrative time method is the life history interview. This method involves conducting in-depth interviews with individuals to document their personal experiences and trajectories over their lifespan. Life history interviews can reveal the complex interplay of various factors such as social, economic, and cultural influences that shape an individual’s life. This method allows for a comprehensive understanding of the context and circumstances that contribute to an individual’s experiences within a program.

Furthermore, narrative time methods can also include techniques such as diaries, journals, and personal narratives. These approaches involve individuals documenting their experiences, reflections, and emotions over a specific period. By analyzing these personal accounts, practitioners can gain a unique perspective on the individual’s journey and the impact of the program on their well-being.

Benefits and Challenges

The use of narrative time methods in program design and evaluation offers several benefits. Firstly, these methods provide a rich and holistic understanding of the experiences and perspectives of individuals within a program. By collecting personal narratives over time, researchers can capture the nuances and complexities of individuals’ lives, which quantitative data alone may not fully capture. This depth of understanding allows for tailored interventions that address the specific needs and challenges faced by program participants.

Secondly, narrative time methods can uncover unintended consequences or unforeseen outcomes of a program. By examining narratives, researchers can identify unforeseen challenges or unintended benefits that may have gone unnoticed by traditional evaluation methods. This insight enables program designers and evaluators to make adjustments or improvements to enhance the program’s effectiveness.

However, the use of narrative time methods also presents challenges. Firstly, collecting and analyzing narrative data requires significant time and resources. Longitudinal studies, in particular, can be costly and time-consuming due to the need to track individuals over an extended period. Additionally, analyzing narratives requires specialized training and expertise in qualitative research methods. Without proper training, researchers may struggle to make sense of the complex and subjective data gathered from personal narratives.

Furthermore, narrative time methods often require ethical considerations. The collection and analysis of personal narratives involve issues of privacy, confidentiality, and informed consent. Researchers must navigate these ethical considerations to ensure the well-being and protection of participants in the program.


In conclusion, narrative time methods play a crucial role in program design and evaluation by providing valuable insights into individuals’ experiences and program effectiveness. These methods, such as longitudinal studies, life history interviews, and personal narratives, offer a deeper understanding of the context, changes over time, and unintended outcomes of the program. While narrative time methods offer numerous benefits, they also present challenges, including time and resource constraints, the need for specialized training, and ethical considerations. By understanding and utilizing narrative time methods effectively, social service professionals can enhance program design and evaluation processes, leading to more informed decision-making and improved outcomes.