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a) Hypothesis and Theory:

The exploration of the relationship between variables and the underlying principles that govern these relationships form the basis of hypothesis and theory development in academic research. In this particular study, the hypothesis aims to examine why certain phenomena occur, while the theory provides a conceptual framework to explain these phenomena.

To develop a hypothesis, it is crucial to review existing literature, identify the gaps in knowledge, and formulate a testable statement that establishes a cause-and-effect relationship between variables. The hypothesis should be derived from the theory, which is a more comprehensive framework that explains the observed phenomena based on established principles and concepts.

In this assignment, the analysis revolves around the phenomenon of “what.” The aim is to investigate the reasons behind a particular event or situation and understand the underlying factors that contribute to its occurrence. The hypothesis will propose a relationship between variables that can be tested through empirical research. The theory, on the other hand, will provide a conceptual understanding based on existing knowledge and empirical evidence.

b) Methods:

The methods section describes the research design, data collection procedures, and analytical techniques employed to investigate the hypothesis and theory. It outlines the steps taken to collect and analyze data in a systematic and rigorous manner.

In this study, the research design may vary depending on the nature of the research question and the available resources. Commonly used methodologies include experimental designs, surveys, observational studies, or case studies. The choice of method will be guided by the research aim, the availability of participants or data sources, and ethical considerations.

Data collection procedures may involve collecting primary data through surveys, interviews, or experiments, or utilizing secondary data from existing sources. The selection of data collection tools and techniques should be aligned with the research question and hypothesis, ensuring the validity, reliability, and generalizability of the findings.

c) Procedure:

The procedure section details the step-by-step process followed during the research study. It includes information about participants, data collection instruments, and any specific protocols or guidelines that were followed.

The procedure typically starts with participant selection, which may involve random sampling, convenience sampling, or purposeful sampling depending on the research design. Ethical considerations, such as informed consent, anonymity, and confidentiality, should be addressed throughout the data collection process.

Next, the data collection instruments and techniques are described. For example, if surveys were used, details about the questionnaire design, administration, and response formats should be included. In the case of experiments, the procedure should outline the manipulation of independent variables, control of confounding variables, and measurement of dependent variables.

d) Results:

The results section presents the findings of the study based on the data collected and analyzed. It aims to provide a clear and concise presentation of the outcomes, including any patterns, trends, or relationships that emerged from the analysis.

The presentation of results should be guided by the research questions, hypothesis, and the appropriate analytical techniques employed. Statistical analyses, such as descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, or qualitative content analysis, may be used to derive meaningful interpretations from the data.

The results section should include both quantitative and qualitative findings, where applicable. Tables, graphs, or charts may be used to enhance the presentation and facilitate comprehension. It is important to report the results objectively, without interpretation or speculation, leaving the discussion and interpretation for the next section.

e) Conclusion:

The conclusion section summarizes the main findings of the study and provides a concise answer to the research question(s) or the testing of the hypothesis. It is an opportunity to restate the significance of the study and discuss its implications.

In this section, the researcher should address whether the hypothesis was supported or rejected based on the findings. Any limitations encountered during the study should be acknowledged, along with suggestions for future research to overcome these limitations and further build on the existing knowledge.

The conclusion may also involve discussing the broader implications of the research, its potential applications, and any recommendations for practitioners or policymakers. It is essential to connect the findings back to the theory, hypothesis, and existing literature to demonstrate how the study contributes to the field.

Overall, the conclusion section seeks to tie together the various elements of the research study, highlighting the significance of the findings and their potential impact on the scholarly discourse.